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nierówny, wyboisty
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a round, raised area on a surface or on the body:
Her bicycle hit a bump in the road and threw her off. Enrique had a nasty bump on his head from when he fell down. The road was so bumpy that I couldn't ride my bike.
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the activities involved in buying and selling things:
the world of commerce and industry. commercialism
wszechstronny, uniwersalny, zwinny i brysty
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able to change easily from one activity to another or able to be used for many different purposes
He's a very versatile young actor who's as happy in highbrow dramas as he is in TV comedies. A leather jacket is a timeless and versatile garment that can be worn in all seasons.
występek (niemoralne zachowanie), zły nawyk, defekt
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a moral fault or weakness in someone's character: illegal and immoral activities, especially involving illegal sex, drugs
Greed, pride, envy, and lust are considered to be vices. My one real vice (= bad habit) is chocolate. The chief of police said that he was committed to wiping out vice in the city. a vice admiral
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a plant with a round mass of pointed parts like leaves surrounding its flower that are eaten as a vegetable
artichoke hearts
skarb, znalezisko
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a treasure trove of something-a place that is full of something good. a large amount of money or a large number of valuable objects found hidden somewhere and seeming to belong to no one:
a treasure trove of information Though small, this museum is a veritable treasure trove of history. A Roman soldier's pay, found by a metal detector enthusiast in Norfolk, has been declared treasure trove.
izolować się, separować się od ludzi, odseparować od reszty
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to keep someone or something away from other people or things
Typically, the bride would seclude herself in another room.
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an area controlled by a bishop
odseparowany, pozostający w separacji (żyjący osobno)(zrazić, zrażać)
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estranged, estrange
an estranged husband or wife is not now living with the person they are married to. If you are estranged from your family or friends, you have had a serious argument with them and are no longer friendly with them:
his estranged wife. It's sad to see someone estranged from their parents. Their reunion followed a long estrangement.
stawka, klasa, cenić (kogoś), klasyfikować
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an amount or level of payment. What's the going (= standard) rate for this type of work? That rates as the worst film I've ever seen.
We agreed a rate with the driver before we got into the taxi. We were served a first-rate food. The company rates him highly as an employee. This movie has not yet been rated. Do you pay your mortgage on a fixed or variable rate
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someone who keeps or examines the records of money received, paid, and owed by a company or person
a firm of accountants
sam wybierasz, co tylko chcesz, do wyboru, do koloru, co tylko dusza zapragnie (i tak dalej)
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you name it
We have everything - laptops, gaming computers, tablets, you name it.
odblaskowy (o powierzchni) refleksyjny, odzwierciedlający problemy
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A reflective surface sends back most of the light that shines on it and can therefore be seen easily. thinking carefully and quietly
After hearing the news they sat in a quiet, reflective silence.
normalizacja, standaryzacja (np. produkcji
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the process of making things of the same type all have the same basic features:
the drive for the global standardization of products. We standardize parts such as rear-view mirrors, so that one type will fit any model of car we make.
każdy lubi coś innego
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to each his own
used to say that people are free to like different thingt
I don't care for football, but to each his own.
szczątkowy, marginalny
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used to describe something, especially a part of the body, that has not developed completely, or has stopped being used and has almost disappeared: being a small remaining part or amount
a vestigial organ/limb/tail. vestigial power. retain vestigial authority
za pośrednictwem
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through/ through the agency of somebody
I gave him the present through the agency of his brother.
dymisjonować, usuwać z urzędu, składać zenania, zeznawać pod przysięga
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to remove someone important from a powerful position
King Charles I was deposed from the English throne in 1646.
kasztanowaty, porzucać
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a dark reddish-purple colour, to leave someone in a place from which they cannot escape
The flowers are deep maroon. Blackbeard deliberately wrecked his ship and marooned his men before making off with their treasure.
pęknięcie, szczelina
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a small, narrow crack or space, especially in the surface of rock. a deep line in an old person's face, or a deep fold in someone's body:
The harsh light revealed every crevice and wrinkle in his face.
płaskowyż, okres stabilizacji, zastój
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stagnation. a large flat area of land that is high above sea level. a period during which there are no large changes. to reach a particular level and then stay the same:
The US death rate reached a plateau in the 1960s, before declining suddenly. I'd been losing about a pound a week on my diet, but recently I've plateaued and haven't lost an ounce.
nazywac rzeczy po imieniu
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call spade a spade
Why not call a spade a spade and let it go?
usposobienie, typowy przykład, szczyt, streszczenie
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the typical or highest example of a stated quality, as shown by a particular person or thing:
Even now in her sixties, she is the epitome of French elegance. His recordings came to epitomize American popular singing at its finest.
zbiegać się, schodzić się, upodobaniac się do siebie
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If lines, roads, or paths converge, they move towards the same point where they join or meet. If ideas and opinions converge, they gradually become similar. to come from other places to meet in a particular place
The paths all converge at the main gate of the park. Ambulances, police cars, and fire engines all converged on the scene.
maszynka do strzyżenia włosów
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hair clipper
rzeczowy (np. dowód), konkretny (np. temat), merytoryczny (np. wniosek),
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important, serious, or related to real facts
Substantive research on the subject needs to be carried out. The documents are the first substantive information obtained by the investigators.
zaściankowy, małomiasteczkowy (np. sposób myślenia), wyspowy(klimat), wycofany, zdystansowany
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interested only in your own country or group and not willing to accept different or foreign ideas
Their actions have led to accusations of insularity or arrogance. She dislikes the cosy insularity of the local jazz scene.
dwustronny, obustronny
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involving two groups or countries
France and Germany have signed a bilateral agreement to help prevent drug smuggling.
stanowiący przykry kontrast, rozczarowujący
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If an event or experience is anticlimactic it causes disappointment because it was less exciting than was expected, or happened immediately after a much more exciting event or experience:
There was so much publicity and hype beforehand that the performance itself was a touch anticlimactic. I thought the movie had a disappointing and anticlimactic ending. When you really look forward to something it's often an anticlimax when it happens.
przepoławiać na pół, przeciąć
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to divide something into two, usually equal, parts
The new road will bisect the town.
pogodny, błogi, niezmącony, łagodny
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peaceful and calm; worried by nothing
She has a lovely serene face. She smiled serenely and said nothing. I admired her serenity in the midst of so much chaos.
nieumyślnie, przez nieuwagę, niechcący
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in a way that is not intentional
He inadvertently deleted the file. I inadvertently ended up on the wrong street. All authors need to be wary of inadvertent copying of other people's ideas.
ostry sprzeciw, gwałtowna reakcja przeciw czemuś
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a strong feeling among a group of people in reaction to a change or recent events in society or politics:
the 60s backlash against bourgeois materialism. the backlash against feminism
monotonny, żmudny
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The problem is I find most forms of exercise so tedious.
ubijać (jajka), szybko zabrać, trzepaczka do jajek
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to take something or someone somewhere else suddenly and quickly. to beat eggs, cream, etc. with a special tool in order to add air and make the food light:
Her husband whisked her off to Egypt for her birthday. Our coffees were whisked away before we'd even finished them. Whisk the egg whites until stiff.
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own goal
in sport, a point that a player scores by mistake against their own team: something that you do that gives you a disadvantage and helps someone else, even if this is the opposite of what you intended
Our team lost when we scored an own goal late in the second half.
nacięcie, dziurka, stopień (w skali czegoś, szczebel
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a V-shaped cut in a hard surface. an imaginary point or position in a system of comparing values, where a higher position is better and a lower position is worse:
The stick has two notches, one at each end. Among current players, she is rated a notch above (= is better than) the rest.
jednakowy, stały
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the same; not changing or different in any way:
The office walls and furniture are a uniform grey. Small businesses are demanding that they receive uniform treatment from the banks.
rozczłonkowywać, zaszufladkować, dzielić
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to separate something into parts and not allow those parts to mix together:
His life was carefully compartmentalized, with his work in one city and his social life in another.
róg obfitości
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cornucopia, horn of plenty
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szefostwo, kierownictwo
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gawędziarski, potoczny, konwersacyjny
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relating to or like a conversation
a conversational style of writing He seems to lack basic conversational skills.
ujarzmienie, zniewolenie (kogoś), podbicie(kraju)
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to defeat people or a country and rule them in a way that allows them no freedom. to treat yourself, your wishes, or your beliefs as being less important than other people or their wishes or beliefs:
She subjugated herself to her mother's needs. Reporters must subjugate personal political convictions to their professional commitment to balance.
tytularnie(tylko z n nazwy), nominalnie, teoretycznie
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in name or thought but not in fact, or not as things really are:
The province is nominally independent. While nominally a film student, Barnett had no aspirations of a career behind the camera.
zalać, zasypać (pracą, komplentami)
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to give someone so much work or so many things that they cannot deal with it allto flood an area with water, flood
We have been inundated with requests for help. If the dam breaks it will inundate large parts of the town.
na chybil trafil
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If something is hit-and-miss, you cannot depend on it to be of good quality, on time, accurate, etc.:
The trains are often late, so getting to work on time is a fairly hit-and-miss affair.
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any of various small mammals with large, sharp front teeth, such as mice and rats
Bats are commonly referred to as the flying mice, but in fact they are not rodents
produkcja, wynik pracy, moc wyjściowa silnika
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an amount of something produced by a person, machine, factory, country, etc.:
Last year manufacturing output fell by 14 percent. agricultural/industrial output
bufor, ochrona, zabezpieczenie, zderzak
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something or someone that helps protect from harm: an extra supply of materials that a company keeps in order to prevent a situation where none are available:
I bought a house as a buffer against inflation. Just-in-time production" means that no buffer stocks are held in the factory.(extra supply)
brudny, obskurny, nędzny
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squalid, sleazy
(of places) extremely dirty and unpleasant, often because of lack of money:
Many prisons, even today, are overcrowded and squalid places. sleazy bar/lawyer
każdy płaci za siebie
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go dutch
to agree to share the cost of something, especially a meal
marne szanse
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fat chance
used to say that you certainly do not think that something is likely to happen
"Perhaps they'll invite you." "Fat chance (of that)!"
społeczny(o normach, nastrojach)
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relating to or involving society
societal change/concerns/problems/values
osoby towarzyszące, świta
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the group of people who travel with and work for an important or famous person
The star arrived in London with her usual entourage of dancers and backing singers.
okrywać(kocem, śniegiem), całościowy
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The blanket cost of the house is 100 thousand dollars. Blanket her if she sleeps. snow blanketed the streets
żeglarski, morski
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relating to ships, sailing, or sailors
nautical equipment. You're looking very nautical in your navy blue sweater.
najsłabszy w miocie, chuchro
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the smallest and weakest animal of a group born at the same time to the same mother. a small or weak person who you dislike
uporczywy, nieustępliwy, mocny(chwyt), trwały (pamięć) lepki, wytrzymały
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olding tightly onto something, or keeping an opinion in a determined way:
The baby took my finger in its tenacious little fist. There has been tenacious local opposition to the new airport.
obustronna umowa, zobowiązać umową
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(in the past) to officially agree that someone, often a young person, will work for someone else, especially in order to learn a job:
He was indentured to a carpenter. The land was worked on by indentured servants. SMART
odcień, zabarwienie, domieszką, odrobinę
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a medicine that consists of a mixture of alcohol and a small amount of a drug
a/some tincture of iodine/myrrh. I feel a bit with a tincture of sadness.
przewód, łącznik (między 2 osobami), kanał
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a pipe or passage for water or electrical wires to go through. a way of connecting two places. someone or something that provides a way of passing something such as information or payments from one person to another
The social media platform has served as a conduit for misinformation. They make pipes and tubes that are used in construction and as electrical conduits. The warehouse will be a regional conduit for goods shipped to the port
hałas, wrzawa, zamieszanie
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without wasting more time:
And so, without further ado, let me introduce tonight's speaker.
zmartwienie, przygnębienie, dolegliwość i schorzenie
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something that makes you suffer
Malnutrition is one of the common afflictions of the poor.
pasywnie, biernie
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in a way that does not act to influence or change a situation; in a way that allows other people to be in control:
He tends to wait passively for his boss to tell him what to do. They will not passively accept what is presented to them.
podział całości na dwie różniące się części, rozbieżność (między dobrem i złem)
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a difference between two completely opposite ideas or things
There is often a dichotomy between what politicians say and what they do.
z wahaniem, niepewnie
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in a way that is not immediate or quick because you are nervous or not certain:
She approached the teacher hesitantly. "I'm afraid," he says hesitantly, "I forgot that today is our anniversary."
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a small piece of jewellery with a pin at the back that is fastened to a woman's clothes
She wore a small silver brooch.
złożony chorobą, przykuty do łóżka
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having to stay in bed because of illness or injury:
His aunt was 93 and bedridden.
kadzić, upiększać, pokrywać cukrem
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to make something seem more positive or pleasant than it really is: to cover food or pills with a thin layer of sugar:
It is not our job to sugar-coat the rise of hate crimes. The statistics are real. Various medicinal preparations in the form of pills have been sugarcoated to make them more palatable.
smaczny, do przyejcia
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Palatable food or drink has a pleasant taste: unpalatable
The meal was barely palatable. I think your idea is palatable. I've never drunk more palatable wine.
pokiereszować, poturbować
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If an animal mauls someone, it attacks that person and injures them with its teeth or claws (= long sharp nails): to criticize something or someone severely:
A small boy was mauled by the neighbour's dog. Both films were mauled by the critics.
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used to describe someone who shows, especially by what they say, that they understand and care about someone else's suffering:
He suffers from back trouble too, so he was very sympathetic about my problem. She just needed someone who would lend a sympathetic ear to her (= listen to her in a kind and understanding way) once in a while.
nienaruszalny, niemożliwy do obalenia, nie do zdobycia
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in such a strong position that you cannot be defeated. impossible to argue or disagree with
This castle was once considered an unassailable fortress. This win has given the team an unassailable lead. The conclusions were unassailable.
wtrącić(komentarz), przerywać
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to say something while another person is speaking:
That's absolutely ridiculous!" Mary interjected.
skupisko ludzi, stłoczyć się, tulić się
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to come close together in a group, for example because it is cold. to sit or stand in a bent position with your arms and legs close to your body, especially because of cold or fear
Employees huddled round television sets at the company headquarters. It was so cold that we huddled together for warmth. Sophie was so frightened by the noise of the fireworks that she huddled (up) in a corner of the room.
przykucnąć, przyczaić się
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crouch down
changed his position into a crouch. The leopard crouched behind the tree.
wybawić kogoś z opresji
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let somebody off the hook
ryzykować coś, narażać się komuś
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run the gauntlet
to have to deal with a lot of people who are criticizing or attacking you:
Every day they had to run the gauntlet of hostile journalists on their way to school.
sprawiedliwość, równość
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w zgodnej opinii, według wszystkich, według tego co mówią
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by all accounts, according to all accounts
molestowanie, prześladowanie, nękanie
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He didn't want to meet them because of their constant harassment. He was sued for sexual harassment of his colleague.
dołożyć starań, bardzo się starać
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be at pains
Egyptian men are at pains to apologize and assure us that not all of their nation is like that
nieoceniony, bezcenny (zazwyczaj o rzeczach niematerialnych, abstrakcyjnych)
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invaluable financial help given by developed countries to those of drastically low GDP
gwałcić zbiorowo
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gang rape
motłoch, banda, paczka znajomych, pospólstwo, oblegać, obstąpić (np. sławną osobę)
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a large, angry crowd, especially one that could easily become violent. to come together around someone in a crowd to express admiration, interest, or anger:
He didn't like being mobbed by his fans. An angry mob formed in front of the city hall. The angry mob outside the jail was/were ready to riot. The usual mob was/were hanging out at the bar.
uprawiać stosunek analny
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to put the penis into another person's anus as a sexual act
wyrugować, wypierać, zmuszać do dymisji
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to force someone to leave a position of power, job, place, or competition
The president was ousted (from power) in a military coup in January 1987. Police are trying to oust drug dealers from the city.
zamach stanu, wyczyn
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A military coup is not a way out of a crisis. It was a very brave coup, congratulations.
unieważnić, anulować, odrzucić
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overturn, invalidate, annul, overrule
render something null and void. to change a legal decision. to officially announce that something such as a law, agreement, or marriage no longer exists:
The Court of Appeal overturned the earlier decision. His second marriage was annulled because he never divorced his first wife.
co Cię gryzie?
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what's eating you?
co będę z tego mieć?
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what's in it for me?
co ci do tego?
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what's it to you?
skrupulatnie, szczegółowo
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in a way that shows you have taken a lot of care or made a lot of effort:
She painstakingly explained how the machine worked.
trójmasztowiec, galeon
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a large sailing ship with three or four masts, used both in trade and war from the 15th to the 18th centuries
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The underage somehow usually gets away with offences and small crimes.
precyzyjny, dokładny(informal)
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completely accurate or correct
He amazed them all by making dead-on predictions. She could do dead-on impressions of her boss.
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the fact of feeling or behaving towards someone else in the same way as they feel or behave towards you:
Our relationship is based upon reciprocation. He didn't expect any reciprocation of affection.
prawo szariatu
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sharia law
the holy laws of Islam that cover all parts of a Muslim's life:
na celowniku
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at gunpoint
while threatening to use a gun (on target, in the firing line)
He was robbed at gunpoint in his shop three years ago.
towarzyszyć jako opiekun, przyzwoitka
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an older person who is present at a social event to encourage correct behavior:
Several teachers acted as chaperons for the school dance.
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very simple, usually small plants that grow in or near water and do not have ordinary leaves or roots
We can eat algae, they are rich in vitamins and amino acids. The fish got tangled in algae.
wylewny, emocjonalny
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kind and loving, especially by touching and holding people more than is usual, often in a way that makes other people uncomfortable:
a touchy-feely approach She's one of those touchy-feely people, always putting her hand on your arm while she's talking to you.
buntownik, powstaniec, zbuntowany
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someone who is fighting against the government in their own country. someone who opposes political authority
All approaches to the capital are now under the control of the insurgents.
impas, klincz, brak rozwiązania, sytuacja patowa
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a situation in which neither group involved in an argument can win or get an advantage and no action can be taken:
Tomorrow's meeting between the two leaders is expected to break a diplomatic stalemate that has lasted for ten years.
wstrząśnienie mózgu
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temporary damage to the brain caused by a fall or hit on the head or by violent shaking:
Many patients with concussion are not seen by a neuropsychologist. He was taken to hospital suffering from concussion.
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the sound of many quick beats played one after the other on a drum: used when you wait before telling people something that you think they will really want to know:
The mystery box contains (drumroll) pearls.
rozkładany fotel
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recliner, reclining chair
rozkładany fotel
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zupełne przeciwieństwo
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opposite, contrary, reverse
France was in many ways an antipode of Austria.
odpowiedzialność, poczytalność
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the fact of being responsible for what you do and able to give a satisfactory reason for it, or the degree to which this happens
Accountability is important these days, and managers aren't always willing to adopt risky strategies. There were furious demands for greater police accountability
dotyczyć, odnosić się
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to relate to or have a connection with something:
regulations pertaining to high-tech industries. Seaweed’s properties, as they pertain to skin care, are still in dispute.
przewodniczyć czemuś, sprawować(ceremonię)
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to be in charge of or to lead a ceremony or other public event:
A priest officiated at the wedding.
przewaga, korzystaja pozycja
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We have a vantage of knowing that they are coming.
drażnić, irytować
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The negative reply to my complaint really irked me.
tchórzostwo (tchórzostwo)
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the behaviour of someone who is not at all brave and tries to avoid danger:
Cowardice prevented me from doing what I knew I should do. You can accuse me of cowardice, but I still wouldn't fight in a war.
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fungi, fungus
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parallel. different or becoming different from something else:
They hold widely divergent opinions on controversial issues like abortion. In his book, he identifies 25 choices men and women make that put them on divergent career paths.
składany, możliwy do złożenia
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folding, foldable
A folding chair, bed, bicycle, etc. can be folded into a smaller size to make it easier to store or carry.
folding chair
dziwak, dziwaczność, kuriozalność
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someone or something that is strange and unusual:
Even today a man who stays at home to take care of the children is regarded as something of an oddity.
intelektualista, przeintelektualizowany, trudny do zrozumienia
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(of books, plays, etc.) involving serious and complicated or artistic ideas, or (of people) interested in serious and complicated subjects. a person who is only interested in serious art or complicated subjects:
This is a film for highbrows.
szczery, prosty... nieudolny
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simple and not wanting to deceive
Why did you take the money?" she asked the child. "Because I wanted it," came the artless reply.
jednorazowy, coś niepowtarzalnego
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one-off/ one-shot
something that happens or is made or done only once:
Will you be doing more talks in the future or was that just a one-off?
zniewalająco, niesamowicie
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beautiful, but in a sad way and often in a way that cannot be forgotten:
a haunting melody the haunting beauty of Africa
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a wild animal from Africa and Asia that looks like a dog, hunts in groups, and makes a sound similar to a human laugh
falisty, pofałdowany
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to have a continuous up and down shape or movement, like waves on the sea:-undulate
The road undulates for five miles before a steep climb. the undulating countryside
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table football/ foosball
frankofon, francuskojęzyczny
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speaking French as the main or official language:
francophone Africa
pojemnik (np. na masło), pudełko (np. z lodami), wanna
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bathtub. a large, round container with a flat base and an open top. a long plastic, metal, or ceramic container that is filled with water so that you can sit or lie in it to wash your whole body
It's good to sink into a nice, hot tub at the end of a hard day's work. tub of ice cream/margarine. The first part of the wine-making process is to crush the grapes in large tubs.
próbka (krwi), okaz, egzemplarz, osobnik
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something shown or examined as an example; a typical example: a small amount of blood or urine used for testing: used to refer to something that is an example of a particular thing
He has a collection of rare insect specimens. They took blood and urine specimens for analysis. The urine is collected in a specimen cup. Specimen papers of the new examinations were released to schools.
wyczyn, popis, afera, sensacja (reklamowa), spowalniać rozwój czegoś
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an exciting action, usually in a film, that is dangerous or appears dangerous and usually needs to be done by someone skilled: something that is done to get attention for the person or people responsible for it:
It's a typical action movie with plenty of spectacular stunts. Tom Cruise has performed his own stunts for Mission Impossible 2, defying warnings from professionals. an advertising stunt. Drought has stunted (the growth of) this year's cereal crop.
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a small island:
an islet in the San Blas archipelago
pełen czegoś niepożądanego(błędów, dziur)
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full of holes
He wore an old jacket riddled with holes. Your book is riddled with typos.
obfitość, dużą ilość, hojność
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produced or given in large amounts
She was admitted to St Mary's Hospital with profuse bleeding. The company accepted blame and sent us profuse apologies.
w oczywisty sposób
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able to be proved:
The report contains numerous demonstrable errors. That's demonstrably untrue! The Arctic regions of North America, Europe, and much of Russia are all becoming demonstrably warmer.
zapach, woń
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a sweet or pleasant smell. a liquid that people put on their bodies to make themselves smell pleasant:
the delicate fragrance of roses. a brand new fragrance for men
na razie!
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peace out
zwijać, owinąć, owijać, lok, pukiel (np. włosów), zwój, krąg, kłąb (np. liny
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a length of rope, hair, or wire, arranged into a series of circles, one above or outside the other:
A coil of rope lay on the beach. She coiled her hair into a neat bun on top of her head. The snake coiled itself tightly around the deer.
tryumfowanie, rozradowanie
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a feeling of great happiness, especially because of a success
There was jubilation in the crowd as the winning goal was scored.
wtrącić się, mieszać, wścibski
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to try to change or have an influence on things that are not your responsibility, especially by criticizing in a damaging or annoying way:
My sister's always meddling in other people's affairs. People shouldn't meddle with things they don't understand.
skwar, skwarny dzień
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I just can't stand the heat. I don't remember such a sizzler in summer in Poland
na barana, nosić na barana, wjechać (gdzieś) na plecach innych (osiągnąć sukces korzystając z pracy innych)
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a ride on someone's back with your arms round the person's neck and your legs round their waist:
I gave her a piggyback ride. Martha rode piggyback on her dad.
żeglowny, spławny
obszar, powierzchnia- stretch
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of an area of water) deep, wide, or safe enough for a boat to go through:
That stretch of river is too shallow to be navigable. The area has hundreds of miles of navigable waterways. They have promised to improve the navigability of the river.
znakomity, wyborny, wyśmienity
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very beautiful and delicate. used to describe feelings such as pleasure or pain that are extremely strong, or qualities that are extremely good; great
an exquisite piece of china. Look at this exquisite painting. The pain was quite exquisite. A good comedian needs to have an exquisite sense of timing.
wrodzony talent, smykałka, wysoka jakość czegoś
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natural ability to do something well. a situation in which something is done in an exciting and interesting way:
He has a flair for languages. He played with great imagination and flair.
naruszać, naruszyć(np. prawa)
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to break a rule, law, etc.:
They infringed building regulations. The senator is opposed to any laws that infringe on a citizen’s right to free speech.
zagroda, zaganiać, otaczać
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an area surrounded by a fence for keeping horses or cattle in, especially in North America. to bring a group of people together and keep them in one place, especially in order to control them:
Police corralled most of the demonstrators in a small area near the station.
zegar z kukułką
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cuckoo clock
uwiecznić, utrwalać, nadawać nieprzerwany bieg
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to cause something to continue
Increasing the supply of weapons will only perpetuate the violence and anarchy. The aim of the association is to perpetuate the skills of traditional furniture design.
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odcień, zabarwienie, zabarwiać, koloryzować(włosy)
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a small amount of a colour. to slightly change the colour of something
The paint we're using for the bathroom is white with a yellow tint. The evening sky was deep pink, with tints of purple and red in it. As the sun set, it tinted the snow pink.
nadęty, zarozumiały
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too proud and considering yourself to be very important:
She's so stuck up, she won't even talk to us. a bunch of stuck-up snobs
świętokradztwo, profanacja
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(an act of) treating something holy or important without respect
Muslims consider it sacrilege to wear shoes inside a mosque. It would be a sacrilege to put a neon sign on that beautiful old building. He considered the artwork to be sacrilegious.
żegluga morska, podróż morzem, żeglarski, związany z morzem
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nautical, connected with traveling by sea
a seafaring man (= a sailor)
rozcieńczać, rozrzedzać(płyn, sok)
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to make a liquid weaker by mixing in something else: to reduce the strength of a feeling, action, etc.:
These measures are designed to dilute public fears about the product's safety. Dilute the juice (with water) before you drink it.
oskarżać, stawiać w stan oskarżenia
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If a law court or a grand jury indicts someone, it accuses them officially of a crime:
He was indicted on drug charges at Snaresbrook Crown Court.
całkowity, absolutny
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complete or in every way; used to emphasize an unpleasant quality of a person or thing:
That's an out-and-out lie! The whole project was an out-and-out disaster.
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my Dream is to open my own brewery and to brew my own brew
niezmiennie, zawsze
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The train is invariably late.
wypatroszyć, usunąć wnętrzności, osłabić, podkopać(siły rządu)
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to remove one or all of the organs from the inside of a body
siedziba, miejsce pobytu, siedlisko
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the place where someone lives
The defendant is of no fixed abode (= has no permanent home). Welcome to my humble abode!
o organiczonym dochodzie, oszczędzanie, tanio(żyć, podróżować)
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on a budget
low in price; cheap, to plan to spend money for a particular purpose:(make financial plan)
Budget airlines have forced major airlines to lower some of their prices. They budgeted $6000 for property taxes this year. You will have to learn how to budget your time to get all your work done
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It's a bit pricey but the food is wonderful.
czcić jak świętość, otaczać czcią, składać w relikwiarzu
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to contain or keep something as if in a holy place: If a political or social right is enshrined in something, it is protected by being included in it:
A lot of memories are enshrined in this photograph album. Her father plans to build an altar at her grave, enshrining the dress and shoes she wore that July day. The right of freedom of speech is enshrined in law/in the constitution
obfity(posiłek), serdeczny, szczery, krzepki(silny)
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enthusiastic, energetic, and often loudly expressed: large or (especially of food) in large amounts:
We ate a hearty breakfast before we set off. She has a hearty dislike of any sort of office work. a hearty welcome a hearty laugh
zbiec się, pokrywać się, być zbieżnym
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to happen at or near the same time. to be the same or similar:
I timed my holiday to coincide with the children's. If the heavy rain had coincided with an extreme high tide, serious flooding would have resulted. Our views coincide on a range of subjects. If our schedules coincide, we'll go to Spain together
treninga czyni mistrza
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practice makes perfect
As my teacher used to say: only practice makes perfect. However you shouldn't play with that fire for too long. otherwise you may get burned
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to make someone want to do something
We need to incentivize our sales managers to achieve these targets.
porazić prądem, zostać straconym na krześle elek.
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. to kill someone by causing electricity to flow through their body
He was electrocuted when he touched the bare wires
przedmowa, poprzedzić przedmową
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an introduction at the beginning of a book explaining its purpose, thanking people who helped the author, etc.: an event that comes before something more important:
In his preface, the author says that he took eight years to write the book. We're hoping these talks could be a preface to peace. Each work is prefaced by a descriptive note and concludes with an author's note.
dzielny, bitny, Chrobry
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very brave or bravely determined, especially when things are difficult or the situation gives no cause for hope
The company has made a valiant effort/attempt in the last two years to make itself more efficient.
paliwo kopalne
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fossil fuel
fuels, such as gas, coal, and oil, that were formed underground from plant and animal remains millions of years ago
We certainly need to step up the effectiveness of fossil fuel use.
małe dziecko, brzdąc, szkrab
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a young child, especially one who is learning or has recently learned to walk
the last time I saw you, you were a little toddler
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A congenital disease or condition exists at or from birth: used to say that someone always shows a particular bad quality:
He has a congenital heart defect. a congenital abnormality/disease. a congenital liar
przyjmować (pacjenta do szpitala) [
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We admitted her yesterday and sent her to surgery. The hospital didn't want to admit me, even though my arm was broken.
wahać się, często się zmieniać (o cenie, ilości), oscylować
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to change, especially continuously and between one level or thing and another:
The indicator fluctuated between two and five. Vegetable prices fluctuate according to the season. Her weight fluctuates wildly.
nawracac, głosić wiarę
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He was also remarkable for the proselytizing zeal with which he wrote his political pamphlets. Television has provided the evangelists with yet another platform for their proselytizing.
ludny, gęsto zaludniony
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A populous country, area, or place has a lot of people living in it:
China is the world's most populous country.
przenikanie, przesiąkanie
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zbieżność (opinie), spływanie dwóch rzek do koryta
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confluence, conflux
the place where two rivers flow together and become one larger river. a situation in which two things join or come together:
The change has been brought on by a confluence of factors. A confluence of events is pushing nuclear policy into the national spotlight.
wydzielać, tryskać (humorem)
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If you exude love, confidence, pain, etc., you show that you have a lot of that feeling. to produce a smell or liquid substance from inside:
She just exudes confidence. Some trees exude from their bark a sap that repels insect parasites.
rzecznictwo, wsparcie, obrona
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public support for an idea, plan, or way of doing something
She is renowned for her advocacy of human rights. a nonprofit advocacy group
plus minus
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give or take
possibly a little more or less than the amount or time mentioned:
It'll be ready at 6:00, give or take a few minutes. It cost £200, give or take.
popychadło, frajer, bułka z masłem
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something that is easy to do or to win, or someone who is easily persuaded or influenced or defeated:
The interview was an absolute pushover. Jean will look after Harry, I'm quite sure - she's a pushover for babies (= will do anything for them).
przepyszne, że aż ślinka cieknie
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(of food) having a very good appearance or smell that makes you want to eat
niewykorzystany, nienapoczety
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If a supply of something valuable is untapped, it is not yet used or taken advantage of:
untapped assets/resources/markets/talent
opad atmosferyczny, przyspieszenie, pośpiech
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water that falls from the clouds towards the ground, especially as rain or snow: a way of behaving too quickly and without thinking:
The forecast is for dry, cloudy weather with no precipitation expected. Hail and sleet are types of precipitation. The prime minister has been accused of acting with precipitation over the crisis. Fear of losing her job precipitated her into action.
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trącać nosem, ryć nosem
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to touch, rub, or press something or someone gently and/or in a way that shows your love, especially with the head or nose, usually with small repeated movements:
My dog came and nuzzled my foot to try and cheer me up. The kittens like to nuzzle up against/up to their mother.
trafnie, stosownie
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suitable or right for a particular situation
an apt comment/description
zwolniony(nie muszący czegoś zrobić), zwolnić kogoś
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exempt, exemption
to excuse someone or something from a duty, payment, etc.: special permission not to do or pay something:
Small businesses have been exempted from the tax increase. Candidates with a qualification in chemistry have exemption from this course. Organizations may qualify for exemption from income tax if they operate exclusively as charities.
uprzejmość, kurtuazyjny, kurtuazja
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polite behaviour, or a polite action or remark: because of
You might get along better with your parents if you showed them some courtesy. The president welcomed her visitors with the usual courtesies. He got his black eye courtesy of a fellow he insulted at the bar last night. courteous
tarapaty, opały
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No we got into this pickle, realising that the deadline could not be met. I'm in a bit of a pickle.
zakratowany, w paski; prążki
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If a door is barred, a bar of wood or metal has been put across it so that it cannot be opened:
They arrived at the house to find the door locked and barred.
poddanie się, podporządkowanie się, poddaństwo
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the act of giving something for a decision to be made by others, or a document formally given in this way: the act of allowing someone or something to have power over you:
No date has yet been set for the submission of applications. They thought the country could be bombed into submission.
pogrążony w żalu
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dobra kondycja (fizyczna i psychiczna)
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the state of being healthy, especially when it is something that you actively try to achieve:
Employers who emphasize worker wellness get a healthy return on their investment. Yoga is said to promote the wellness of the mind and body.
pełen grozy, niesamowity, przedziwny, tajemniczy
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eerie, eerily
strange in a frightening and mysterious way:
She heard the eerie noise of the wind howling through the trees. He had the eerie feeling that he had met this stranger before. Her voice was eerily similar to her dead grandmother's.
osiągalny, do nabycia
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That drug is now obtainable without a prescription.
szlifować (papierem ściernym)
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to make something smooth by rubbing it with something rough, especially sandpaper (= strong paper with sand attached to it):
Sand the door (down) thoroughly before starting to paint.
rzadkość, nieliczność(populacji)
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the fact of being small in number or amount, often spread over a large area:
The sparseness of the population made it impracticable to provide separate schools for boys and girls. The sparseness of evidence makes it difficult to assess if there is any connection.
potrzebować pilnie skorzystać z toalety
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be bursting
i need to go to the toilet soon
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longed-for, await
He is in prison awaiting trial.
przesyt, mnóstwo, obfitość, nadmiar
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a very large amount of something, especially a larger amount than you need, want, or can deal with:
There's a plethora of books about the royal family. The plethora of regulations is both contradictory and confusing.
sekciarski, członek sekty
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caused by or feeling very strong support for the religious or political group that you are a member of, in a way that can cause problems with other groups:
a sectarian murder He called on terrorists on both sides of the sectarian divide to end the cycle of violence. We have to stand up for the moderates against the extremists and the sectarians.
osoba o umiarkowanych poglądach, łagodzić, złagodzić, umiarkowany
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neither small nor large in size, amount, degree, or strength: Moderate opinions, especially political ones, are not extreme and are therefore acceptable to a large number of people. a person whose opinions, especially their political ones, are not extreme
He is well-known as a moderate in the party. The cabin is of moderate size - just right for a small family. Imposing sanctions is a moderate action when you consider that the alternative is military intervention. We have had moderate success
Jestem wypchany
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I'm stuffed
I've eaten a lot
plan podróży, przewodnik (książka)
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a detailed plan or route of a journey:
The tour operator will arrange transport and plan your itinerary.
bójka, przepychanka, szamotać się z kimś
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a short and sudden fight, especially one involving a small number of people: to have a sudden short fight:
Two police officers were injured in scuffles with demonstrators at Sunday's protest. The pair scuffled on the ground, both kicking and punching.
skwierczeć(na patelni, na słońcu), skwierczenie
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to make a sound like food cooking in hot fat:
The sausages are sizzling in the pan.
wywyższać się, pysznić się, pyszałek
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to walk or behave in a way that shows that you are very confident and think that you are important:
His swaggering self-confidence irritates many people. They swaggered into the room. He walked out of the room with a self-confident swagger.
wyrastać, rozwijać się, kiełkować, zapuszczać (włosy), dorastać mężczyznę
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to produce leaves, hair, or other new developing parts, or (of leaves, hair, and other developing parts) to begin to grow
It takes about three days for the seeds to sprout. Your hair is sticking up - it looks like you're sprouting horns! New factories have sprouted up everywhere. He has sprouted from a boy to a man
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someone who is not at school or work when they should be:
There are several absentees from school this week, because a lot of people have flu.
okres dojrzewania płciowego
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the stage in people's lives when they develop from a child into an adult because of changes in their body that make them able to have children:
At puberty, pubic hair develops and girls begin to menstruate.
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of or near the sexual organs on the outside of a person's body
pubic hair the pubic area
plan lekcji
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wstęp, pozwolenie na wejście dokądś
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He was refused admittance to the club.
zbieżność, konwergencja
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the fact that two or more things, ideas, etc. become similar or come together:
a convergence of interests/opinions/ideas The convergence of pop-cultural trends and technological progress gave us camera phones and the "selfie".
sprawny fizycznie, krzepki
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people who are healthy and have no illness, injury, or condition that makes it difficult to do the things that other people do
It is hard for the able-bodied to understand the difficulties that disabled people encounter in their daily lives.
naśladować, próbować naśladować
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to copy something achieved by someone else and try to do it as well as they have:
They hope to emulate the success of other software companies. Fitzgerald is eager to emulate Martin's record of three successive world titles.
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a gay man. This word is considered offensive when it is used by people who are not gay.
disgusting faggot
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drip, drip-feed
a method of slowly giving someone liquid medicine or food through a tube into a vein, or a piece of equipment for doing this
He was on a drip for three days.
nakrzyczeć, zrugać
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to speak to someone angrily because you disapprove of their behaviour:
His mother scolded him for breaking her favourite vase.
wtargnięcie (na czyjś teren), naruszenie (czyichś praw)
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to go onto someone's land or enter their building without permission:
I hope this is a public footpath and we're not trespassing on someone's land.
zatracić się w
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loose oneself in
to be thoroughly absorbed in someone or something; to become engrossed in someone or something
a musician who completely loses herself in the music
absorbować, zaabsorbować, trzymać w napięciu zrobić ostateczną redakcję czegoś
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If something engrosses you, it is so interesting that you give it all your attention:
What is it about Harry Potter that so engrosses children?
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(swimming) trunks
the main part of a person's body, not including the head, legs, or arms. a piece of men's clothing that covers the hips and bottom and the top part of the legs and is worn when swimming
The statue shows the head, trunk, and arms of an old man.
odnieść się do czegoś
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rise to something, address something
Can you rise to my question? We have to address this issue, we can't neglect it.
zabraknąć słów
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run out of words, stuck of words
rzecz nieuchwytna, imponderabilia, niematerialna,
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not able to be perceived by the senses. impossible to touch, to describe exactly, or to give an exact value:
She has that intangible quality which you might call charisma. intangible assets such as goodwill Common sense and creativity are some of the intangibles we're looking for in an employee.
zamożny, wystawny, bujny(włosy)
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expensive and luxurious
an opulent lifestyle an opulent hotel an opulent hair
ciągle zmian, wahania
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continuous change
The financial system is still in a state of flux. Our plans are in a state of flux at the moment.
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the state of having a lot of money or owning many things:
The nation's affluence has made two- and even three-car families the norm.
uczęszczać (odwiedzać często jakieś miejsce), bywać
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to be in or visit a particular place often:
a bar frequented by criminals. She frequents this restaurant because she is fond of it.
kierować z ukrycia organizować, planować, przywódca mózg (przedsięwzięcia)
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to plan a difficult activity, often a crime, in detail and make certain that it happens successfully:
He's believed to have masterminded the attacks.
przespać się z tym
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sleep on it
to wait before making a decision
Don’t give me an answer now – sleep on it and tell me whenever you’re ready.
nic wielkiego się nie stało, nic takiego
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no big deal, no biggie
Smoking cigarettes from time to time is no big deal. Don't worry it's not big deal
kamień, osad
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white material that collects inside water pipes, kettles, etc. in areas where the water is hard (= contains a lot of natural chemicals)
zmiękczacz, środek zmiękczający
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a substance used to make something soft:
(a) fabric softener
burda, awantura, rozrabiać
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to fight in a way that is not serious. a fight between many people, without weapons
A couple of boys were roughhousing (each other) in the park.
szurać nogami, przekładanie, tasować karty, przekładać z miejsca na miejsce
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to walk by pulling your feet slowly along the ground rather than lifting them: move similar things from one position or place to another, often to give an appearance of activity when nothing useful is being done:
You could hear his legs shuffle in the next room. The players are dealt five cards after the shuffle. He shuffled the documents around the office, so she couldn't find them.
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tee up
Believe in yourself. If you tee up, you can win.
rata, odcinek (serialu), część (np. trylogii)
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the regular periodic payment that a borrower makes to a lender
Your payment will be divided into six installments.
unbearable, intolerable
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If a situation or experience is unendurable, it is so unpleasant or painful that it is almost impossible to bear:
unendurable pain/suspense
wsadzić, zrobić wsad, wsad, maczać
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to put a biscuit, piece of bread, etc. into a liquid such as tea, coffee, or soup for a short time before eating it: If you dunk a basketball, you score by jumping high enough to throw the ball down through the goal.
She dunked a biscuit in her coffee. Dunk the sponge in water every once in a while to stop it from drying out.
miernik, wskaźnik, przekrój, oceniać, mierzyć
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to measure, estimate. to calculate an amount, especially by using a measuring device: a device for measuring the amount or size of something:
Use a thermometer to gauge the temperature. I tried to gauge (= guess) the weight of the box. a fuel/rain/temperature gauge
w pojedynkę
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without any help from anyone else:
She single-handedly supported the family after her husband’s death. He has single-handedly revived flagging public interest in motor racing.
przeczytać uważnie, przeglądać z uwagą
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He was perusing the map to find the most suitable camping spot.
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colloquial speech
głuchy odgłos, bić, grzmocic, uderzać, walniecie
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to hit something and cause a noise. the sound of something heavy hitting something:
Someone was thumping on the door. She fell to the floor with a thump.
biesiada, ucztować
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to dance, drink, sing, etc. at a party or in public, especially in a noisy way
poczucie przynależności plemiennej
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a very strong feeling of loyalty to a political or social group, so that you support them whatever they do. the state of existing as a tribe, or a very strong feeling of loyalty to your tribe
wojowniczy, bojówkarz
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active, determined, and often willing to use force:
militant extremists The group has taken a militant position on the abortion issue and is refusing to compromise. Security forces made it impossible for militants to carry out their threats.
ubezwłasnowolnienie, pozbawiać praw obywatelskich
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to take away power or opportunities, especially the right to vote, from a person or group
Both the refugees and those who became politically disenfranchised joined the ranks of stateless persons.
ogień krzyżowy, ostrzał
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bullets fired towards you from different directions:
One boat of refugees was caught in (the) naval crossfire and sunk.
głąb (np. kapusty), końcówka (np. ołówka), ogarek (świecy), pieniek zęba, ZBIĆ Z TROPU
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the part of something such as a tree, tooth, arm, or leg that is left after most of it has been removed: to be unable to answer a question or solve a problem because it is too difficult:
the stump of a tree Her smile broadened to reveal two rows of brown stumps. I'm completely stumped - how did she manage to escape? Scientists are stumped by this mystery virus.
mówić bez ogródek
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not to put too fine a point on it
to be completely direct and honest:
I think she's wrong - not to put too fine a point on it.
rozrzutnik, rozpustny
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spending money or using something in a way that wastes it and is not wise
She is well-known for her profligate spending habits. The profligate use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistant bacteria.
dziób, afisz i ulotka. ogłaszać
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the beak of a bird
Michael, you will hang the bills of our concert. He billed that he will perform in the play.
sprężony, skondensować, ubijac do
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to press something into a smaller space. to make information, a piece of writing, etc. shorter:
The course compresses two year's training into six intensive months. Firmly compress the soil in the pot so that the plant is secure.
intratny, spokojny, cichy
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very easy
nie pojmuję, nie ogarniam
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It beets me
"Who won the Premier League last year?" "Beats me."It beats me how she got the job.
odłączony od ciała, z oddali
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disembody-odlaczac się od ciała. seeming not to have a body or not to be connected to a body
a disembodied voice
obnosić się ze swoimi poglądami
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nail one's colours to the mass
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a small fish with a strong, salty taste
Decorate the top of the pizza with anchovies/strips of anchovy.
swoboda działania/wyboru
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freedom to act within particular limits
Local councils will be given some leeway as to how they implement the legislation
podsumować, streszczać, rekapitulowac
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to sum up, to summarize. to repeat the main points of an explanation or a description
Finally, the teacher recapped the main points of the lesson. To recap, our main aim is to increase sales by 15 percent this year. Could you give me a quick recap on what happened in the meeting?
ślepa siła niszczycielska
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a large powerful force or organization that cannot be stopped. a very large, heavy truck
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word formation
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a man who is in charge of a monastery
skorupiaki, owoce morze
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sea creatures that live in shells and are eaten as food, or one of these creatures
Lobsters, crabs, and oysters are all shellfish.
pobory duchownego, pensja, stypendium
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a particular amount of money that is paid regularly to someone:
alokować, przydzielać, przyznawać
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to give something to someone as their share of a total amount, to use in a particular way:
It is not the job of the investigating committee to allocate blame for the disaster/to allocate blame to individuals. The government is allocating £10 million for health education.
sarnina, jelenina
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I'm full. I ate a venison
zarabiać na życie
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make one's living
It's hard to make one's living as a Witcher on the main roads which feature disquieting shortage of monsters.
ujadający, rozszczekany pies
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a name given to someone or something that is not their or its real or official name
These charms have earned the television show's host the sobriquet "the thinking woman's heartthrob".
obiekt westchnień
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a famous man, often a singer or an actor, who is attractive to many women
samotniczy, pustelniczy
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living alone and avoiding going outside or talking to other people
a reclusive billionaire She became increasingly reclusive after the tragedy.
lennik, wasal
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liege, liegeman
a lord or king: vassal
No man would break an oath to his liege. Yes, my liege.
szczenię, młode niektórych zwierząt
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a baby of particular animals, or a puppy:
a seal pup an otter pup
wyżłobienie, wyżłobić, dłuto
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to dig or cut into something in a rough or violent waya tool with a handle, a long, curved blade and a sharp end, used for cutting wood and stone and in surgery (= medical cutting, chisel
He drove into some railings and gouged a hole in the back of his car. A symbol was gouged into the surface of the wood. There are deep gouges in the soil where the car left the track.
wysyłać (np. depeszę), ekspediować (kogoś gdzieś), załatwić, uporać się, uwinąć się (
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to send something, especially goods or a message, somewhere for a particular purpose:
Two loads of cloth were dispatched to the factory on 12 December.
podrasować coś
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hop something up
zmiana (np. w pracy), tura, przekazywać (np. wiadomość), podawać dalej (informację), nadawać (program telewizyjny), retransmitować
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to repeat something you have heard, or to broadcast a signal, message, or programme on television or radio:
I was told the news first and then I relayed it to the others. TV pictures of the war were relayed around the world by satellite. Relays of workers kept the machines going through the night.
bycie ofiarą
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the condition of having been hurt, damaged, or made to suffer, especially when you want people to feel sorry for you because of this or use it as an excuse for something:
These bloody terror attacks forged a bond of victimhood between the inhabitants of Paris and London. Despite his personal losses, Paul carries himself without a hint of victimhood.
podupadły, słabnący
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becoming weaker:
flagging energy/enthusiasm
być stałym klientem, patronować, wspierać, traktować jak dziecko
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to speak to or behave towards someone as if they are stupid or not important: to be a regular customer of a shop or restaurant, etc
Stop patronizing me - I understand the play as well as you do. The restaurant was patronized by many artists and writers during the 1920s.
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outhouse, comfort station
a small building containing a seat over a hole that is used as a toilet, used esp. by people who live in houses that do not have water moving in pipes
być wtajemniczonym
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be privy to
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a flat container with a handle into which you brush dust and dirt
wykręcić się, wywinąć się
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weasel out of something
to escape responsibility for something
My roommate always tries to weasel out of doing the dishes.
sprzyjający (sprzyjać komuś)
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providing the right conditions for something good to happen or exist
be conducive to someone. Such a noisy environment was not conducive to a good night's sleep. A quiet room is a more conducive atmosphere for studying.
wywłaszczać, konfiskować, zagarniać
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to take away money or property especially for public use without payment to the owner, or for personal use illegally
He was discovered to have been expropriating company funds.
na wskroś, w każdym calu, od a do z
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through and through
My mother is Irish through and through.
bzdury, pierdoły, jaja
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a rude word for nonsense: a rude word for a testicle
That's a load of bollocks. Bollocks to that (= I do not agree with or do not want to do that)!
objaśnić, tłumaczyć, wykładać
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to give a detailed explanation of something:
He's always expounding on what's wrong with the world. She uses her newspaper column to expound her views on environmental issues.
klasyfikować, sortować, segregować, zaopatrywać
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prostacki, chamski
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boor- a person who is rude and does not consider other people's feelings
I’m sick of your boorish behavior.
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vying-wspolzawodniczenie. to compete with other people to achieve or get something
Six candidates are currently vying for the Democratic presidential nomination. The two older children tend to vie with the younger one for their mother's attention.
prawdę powiedziawszy
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truth be known/told
zakład, zakładać się, stawka
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an amount of money that you risk in the hope of winning more, by trying to guess something uncertain, or the agreement that you make to take this risk:
She put a cash wager of £50 on the race. He tried to eat 50 hard-boiled eggs, for a wager. I'd wager (that) she's interested in you.

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